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Dynamics are written instructions that tell a performer how loud to play. They range from pianissimo or pp which is very soft, all the way to fortissimo or ff which is very loud.

This table shows how dynamics can be compared to the volume of the human voice.

Dynamics (volume)
Dynamic Voice
pp almost at a whisper
p softer than speaking voice
mp soft speaking voice
mf loud speaking voice
f louder than speaking voice
ff almost shouting


Look at the dynamic instructions printed under the music

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